This is the Pledge of Allegiance in 1943. I found this in a notebook belonging to one of the "greatest generation". A veteran who fought in WW!!, who joined the armed forces willingly and "fought to keep the world free".
You will notice that the phrase "under God" does not appear on this version. For those who like to keep things the way they were intended by the founding fathers, or in this case those who were there when the pledge was written and , consider this...
The original pledge was written in September of 1892 by Francis Bellamy for a magazine called "The Youth's Companion" in Boston. It was distributed via leaflets and sent to schools throughout the United States, in the following form, "I Pledge allegiance to my flag and the Republic for which it stands -- One nation indivisible -- with liberty and justice for all".
A call out to all of the people who are thinking about voting for the "know nothings" like Sarah Palin and Michele Bachmann. These are the the people who are voting for so-called (and narrow) ideological reasons, like 'so-called Christianity and so-called Conservatism' without the pragmatic advantage of clear thought about what is and what really needs doing.
We are being offered the choice of voting for some folks that haven't got the brains God gave them, and who follow ideological dead ends. Some voters are being led like sheep all the while being encouraged by candidates who are not only lining their pockets but also in the pockets of their funders, all the while forgetting about the true 'greater good' of the nation and it's citizens.
C'mon citizens. let's educate ourselves. Instead of reasoning from the general and ideological, down to the particular, let's look at all of the particulars and reason up to a clear picture of what the situation really is. At all levels of government, we desperately need to be paying attention to who is funding whom, who is actually working to solve our very real problems, rather than just stand in the way for their own political and financial ends.
"Too often we... enjoy the comfort of opinion without the discomfort of thought." - JOHN F. KENNEDY
Watching "news" on the TV, listening to the radio, one hears a lot of information. So-called factual reporting, that actually consists of greatly distorted accounts. Minimum facts and a lot of ideological contortions to make the stories mean what someone wants them to mean.
Rush Limbaugh is a classic study in the enthusiastic promulgation of arguments and conclusions without validity. He makes classic mistakes of logic. He uses vague claims, imprecise claims by comparison, confuses matters of fact with matters of opinion. When someone disagrees with his ideological premise he doesn't argue against the argument he argues against the person, making ad hominem attacks on the individual.
We use words and concepts in very imprecise ways. With our media world infected with this kind of faulty thinking, we have to be very careful not to fall into the same kinds of murky reasoning.
Given that we are again (sigh) entering an election cycle, and that we are daily bombarded with public officials and personalities who are looking for our ideological and financial support, here are a few "Fallacies of Relevance" we might want to consider when listening to other's arguments, and to remember while making arguments of our own.
Ad Ignorantium - Arguing that something is true because no one has proved it to be false.
Ad Baculum - The so called argument from force. Arguing to support the acceptance of an argument by a threat or use of force, which results in the termination of logical argumentation, because it elicits other kinds such as fear, anger and reciprocal use of force.
Ad Miseriecordiam - This is the argument eliciting pity. Arguing by appealing to emotional pity in order to have a point accepted.
Ad Vericundiam - The argument to authority. This is the appealing to authority, including customs, traditions, institutions, etc. In order to gain acceptance of a point at issue. There is also the mistaken appeal to the feelings of reverence or respect we have of those in authority, or who are famous.
Ad Hominiem - This is the mirror image of the appeal to authority. We are encouraged to reject a proposition because it is the stated opinion of someone regarded as disreputable in some way. Remember PERSONALITY IS IRRELEVANT TO THE TRUTH.
Ignoratio Elenchi - This is the irrelevant conclusion, and it tries to establish the truth of a proposition by offering an argument that really provides support for an entirely different conclusion.
Ad Populum - The appeal to the masses. Things that are common practice to believe, peer pressure, and the appeal to belief without reason to believe.
I learned about these and other aids to critical thinking and logic, sitting in on, and taking notes in a Critical Thinking class at our wonderful Santa Barbara City College.
To all my fellow citizens, humans, mice and other creatures, think about these, practice listening for them, and work at thinking things through. Take one small argument at a time, see what you come up with.